Player A (The Server). The server’s main jobs are to hit the first serve in
and at the opponent’s backhand. Then to one-two-three, check with your
feet, and punch the first volley away from player D. Most any ball that is a put away should be handled by player B, becoming the “two” of your one-
two play. The server should follow the first, or transitional, volley to the net in tandem with player B. The next shot could be the put away.
Player B (The Server’s Partner). The theory of doubles holds that the
serve is stronger than the rest of the game and will cause an error or a
floater to the middle of the court. It is B’s job to think middle and to cash in
on the 6–1 ratio: Points won in the middle, compared to those lost down
the alley, set up by the serve. Many times this player will become a
figure 3

“shrinking violet” after a few misses and simply freeze in his spot. This is a
cardinal error and B must learn to keep coming in spite of even bad
errors. I encourage my B players to watch A until mid-serve then turn and
go to the middle as soon as they hear the ball hit by their serving partner.
A more conservative thing to do would be, when they turn and see the
serve actually hit in the backhand corner, where it is most apt to create
the desired “floater.” An even safer time to move is when they see the
receiver tilt the racquet to the backhand side, thus committing himself to
his weaker shot. B may make the play much more aggressive by the use of
signals that commit him to the 100 percent poach. Doubles teams must
pre-ordain whether they will operate on signals or instinct, with equal
arguments for both schools of thought. It is wise policy for doubles teams
to understand that an instinct mover may back off an extremely good or
low return and allow the server to handle this ball from a deeper, more
solid position. Most often, however, the serving team is geared toward
the “boom-boom” or one-two set up by the serve.
Player C (The Receiver). The serving team has the odds in their favor in
terms of the one-two play. Yet many receiving teams fail to understand
that a good return can turn defense into offense, or a “boom-boom” for the
receivers. If 90 percent of serves in doubles are directed at the backhand,
it is incumbent on doubles aspirants to develop great backhand returns.
Perhaps this is the skill that most determines doubles success. While
topspin is the order of the day in singles, the underspin backhand return in
doubles is the fundamental shot. It should be aimed at the “short corner”
(or where the side service lines interact), and its function is to cause the
server to hit his first volley up. Well hit, this shot will create a one-two play
in which D of the receiving team moves in to volley in between A and B
(just as he does for the serving team). One of the secondary possibilities
C has is to lob great services. A deftly placed lob, aimed over B’s head, can
take the one-two away from the server. This shot is a fundamental shot in
doubles and can take the sting out of big serves and fickle momentum in
favor of the receivers. Of course, if there is a service weakness (particularly
on second serves) the receiver may effectively knock the blazes out of
this weak shot for a one-shot winner. These three options: Underspin
backhand, lob over B, or hammer the weak serve give player C his
assignment. Also, C must freeze B with some shots down the alley. While
the odds are against this risky shot, it must be employed to keep B honest.
A good rule for C is the more the net player (B) bothers you, the more you
hit at that player.
Player D (The Receiver’s Partner). Just as B is looking for a one-two
approach to end the point, D’s intentions are to use his partner’s return to set up his own “two” performance. He must, however, respect the power
of the service and establish himself at mid-court in contrast to B, who is
already at the net. From here, he must execute several unique techniques.
First, he becomes an on-court linesman who aids a receiver faced with a
tough return. Second, he assays the quality of his partner’s return. If the
underspin return is on target, he quickly moves in to create the desired
one-two off the server’s “up volley.” If, however, the serve causes the
predictable weak return from his partner, he must make another quick
decision. Perhaps he can avoid eating a yellow ball. Quite often he may
elect to stand his ground and anticipate B’s in-the-slot slam by placing his
racquet in front of that predictable shot. In any event he makes a quick up,
back, or stand-your-ground decision based on the quality of the service
return. The ability of the receiving team to combine the low cross-court
return with D’s movement possesses the combination needed to provide
the all-important service break in doubles.
The competent coach will continuously devise drills for players B and
D in an attempt to perfect the “closing in” action essential to one-two
success. Players must constantly be encouraged to move their feet to set
up the “boom-boom” effect when a tennis ball hangs momentarily just
a bit too high. That’s what you are trying to create; that’s what you are
waiting for—don’t have your finger in your ear and your mind in neutral
and miss the one-two of doubles.


A few comments on ground strokes and women. I was a “pre-two
hander” in 1961. Pancho Segura showed the world how to hit one but
conventional wisdom said, “two-handed backhands are only for those who
can’t hit a one hander.” No Evert, Connors, Borg, Austin, etc. I’m glad many
young ones didn’t listen. Soon the tennis world realized not only can a lot
of people hit it two handed, it’s often a better shot offensively. The two
hander gave many average players something they’d never had: offense or
topspin on the backhand side. Until the two hander, college men followed
this regimen: they’d practice like heck hitting a one-handed topspin
backhand. Then, when the match was on the line they’d revert to their
more trusted underspin backhand ball. There were certainly exceptions,
but by and large this statement is true: “Most average male college players
can’t hit a reliable one-handed topspin ball.”
Once the two hander got “certified” you began to see average high
school players who could “tattoo” a topspin two hander, and the game
changed forever, for the better.
However, a valuable tool was neglected for many. Coach Jim Verdieck
gave me one of his business cards. It had an interesting sentence on it: “I
didn’t change anything, I gave you a new one.” I asked him what he meant.
Essentially he said the two handers were so protective of their newfound
weapon, the underspin one hander was abandoned. The underspin one
hander is a tool every truly complete player would possess. Too many awkward and/or short shots (approaches, service returns, defensive cross
courts) are best hit by one-hand underspinners.
Often these balls are too difficult to handle with two-handed topspin,
“full,” or lengthy shots.
Like golfers, you have to have a lot of “tools” in your bag of tricks. The
“chip,” or “slice,” is truly a great tool to master. Think “wedges,” golfers.
Slices are tough for little people, young girls, especially. And it’s tough to
add it once you’ve neglected it in “formative years.”
One reason it’s difficult is that people don’t understand the value of the
“hit spot” regarding two different backhands. The two-handed backhand is
“much like a one-handed forehand,” and therefore works best when hit off
the front foot. One handers must be hit about the width of one’s shoulders
in front of the front “balance” foot.
When teaching adult women a “hush” would come over the group.
These “strugglers with the backhand” would grip the racquet just as I, yet
neglect movement to the “hit spot.” Good backhands come from good
grips and good hit spots. I’d bark: “Good hit spots make good shots. Lousy
hit spots make lousy shots. Lousy hit spots make wristy shots, and wristy
shots are lousy shots.”
The term “hit spot” is a direct steal from Coach Verdieck. My guess is
Dennis Van Deer’s early unique contribution to tennis instruction was
teaching pupils to understand the pupil’s adjustment to the bouncing ball.
Van Der Meer and Verdieck were friends.
Once I became better at conveying “movement to the hit spot” my
players at all levels got better quickly.
And the one-handed slice may be the one most helped by proper “
hit spot.”


There are three main “parts” you have to coach: physical, mental, and
emotional. The emotional part is the toughest to deal with. However, there
are really only two villainous emotions: Fear and anger. And they are both
Macky Carden, Elon football coach, told me, “When they get that old
sinking feeling, you’ve got to change their minds.”
That “old sinking feeling” exists in a lot of places; one is on the tennis
court. “Frozen elbows” cause practice to be worthless. Few people can play
when angry at themselves. Maybe McEnroe was “actually nervous” whenhe created those incidences. Angry, maybe, was better than scared for
Mac. Only he knows.
One freshman player’s father accompanied him to my office on reporting
to Elon. He brought a bag that contained thirteen broken racquets. The
father wanted to know if I would appeal to Wilson Sporting Goods to
replace the “faulty” $100 racquets. The fault wasn’t the racquet, it was the
anger with which they were being thrown or banged. I attempted to fix
the real flaw, the self-directed anger that ruled the boy’s game.
No one would practice harder, but to no avail. Within moments this
young man would go into a tantrum, chastising himself in a hopelessly
damaging tirade. He didn’t get angry much with others. It was self-directed
and killer. It took a long time to change this attitude, but without
changing, I wouldn’t allow him to represent us. It took a lot of patience
for him to learn to quit “beating yourself up.”
Here are several comments about the emotional part of coaching:
• Some players don’t have the “nervous system” of a tennis player.
• The only players who do well as team players are those who can
handle pressure. It’s in college tennis. Either you can handle it or lose.
You can learn to handle it.
• Blood flow, more specifically “venous return,” causes “butterflies.”
Proper warm-up can help get rid of the “jitters.” For many they go
away once you exercise.
• There is a psychological “proper level of arousal” for athletes. Not too
“torqued up” but you do need your game face. Different strokes for
different folks.
• Psychologically tough people make the best college tennis players.
• What pressure does to the “one-piston” player is amazing. I saw a
lot of number one seeds lose in the national tournament due to early
round “nerves.”
• If you “hang in there,” it is truly amazing what can happen. Some call
it “momentum” but “pressure” is a more influencing variable. Tennis is
truly unique in that “one point can turn the match around.” This is a
“core” belief.


Perhaps one of my premier coaching attempts centered on pressure and
playing “ahead.” You are either tied, ahead, or behind. Behind and tied are
motivators enough. Playing while ahead is a critical emotional moment.
I don’t know how many matches I saw unfold like this:
Player A is ahead 5–3 in the third set. His opponent is serving. In the back
of Player A’s head drifts this dangerous thought: “Even if I lose this game, I
can serve out the match.”All this results in a lackluster effort at another, and match-winning, service break. The opponent breaks for 5–5 and the “momentum” has reversed itself. Now the pressure, and its power, has shifted dramatically.
Teaching “killer instinct” is key. Ahead a service break? Get a second.
I think that the most vulnerable points are “ahead points,” 40–15 and
30–0. These are the points that 20 year olds lose concentration on, thus
allowing that “old sinking feeling” to reenter.
When ahead, keep the pressure off yourself by staying ahead.


Bjorn Borg taught a magnificent lesson one day on TV. Having just
beaten McEnroe in “the greatest match ever,” I watched commentator
Bud Collins interview the Wimbledon champ.
Collins asked Borg, “How did you do it?”
Borg, stoic as ever, said simply, “Legs.” Nothing more.
Collins had several minutes on his hands and rambled on in a
commentary I don’t remember.
Then, Borg, having thought some, took the mike from Bud. His
comments were:

  1. I was very nervous inside.
  2. I thought, surely I will lose.
  3. I told myself, I must put these thoughts out of my mind.
  4. I will not quit under any circumstances!
    End of clinic. Pretty good advice for a lot of areas.
    Young coaches: reread ten times.


• Failing to recognize the weaker player and attacking that person. This
may change within the match.
• Failing to identify the weaker service return of each player. This, too,
can change within the match.
• Failing to put pressure on second serves by moving in and hitting an
attacking return.
• Failure to attempt a “quality” return. This could be a lob or a chip, but
it has to have a plan. Don’t hit “wimpy” returns. Our team will accept
errors of ability but not fear. Go for it.
• Our server with the best win percentage serves first in every set. This
is not necessarily the player with the best serve.
• Not closing in on “floaters” at the net; if you fail at this, you sit in the
stands during the next match.
• Assuming one service break wins the pro set (8 games). I saw many
pro sets lost with the winners being down 7–3.


Good doubles players are aggressive with their returns. They know
their target, and they are immune to pressure. Big points are made under
The following drill is good for teams. It is especially good for developing
that “pressure-packed” bomb return that earns the “hallowed” serve break.
We ran this drill daily. I demanded the returner attack the ball. “Go ahead
and bust it. I’m the coach, you have my permission to go all out.” By daily
reinforcing aggressive returns, we were ready in that dramatic moment of
service break returns to “go for it.”
Here is the drill:
Each receiver gets to hit a determined number of returns (7–10). Play
a full point. After each point the serving side’s players rotate. The server
comes to the net. The server’s partner goes from the net to the back of the
serving line. The number 2 server steps up and plays the next point.
After 10 returns the add court player becomes the receiver. After both
receivers finish their 10 returns, they go to the server’s side. And the
servers become the receivers.
Receivers: “Green light—go get it!”


All players have been told to serve at their opponent’s weakness. It’s at
their backhand most of the time. Nine out of ten players are right-handed,
so the target remains the same for most serves.
Let’s make this clear: They are going to serve at your backhand. Often.
Again there are options. For me as a coach, option one is to develop a
dependable underspin, one-handed service return. Hit it low and at the
server and volleyer’s feet. Make him volley up to your partner: “Doubles
is a one-two game.” Defining the “short corner” as the intersection of the
service court back and side lines (see figure 6), we now have a “visual” for
where the return goes. One problem: if you hit for the short corner and
miss a little long you may hit into an error. (See figure, shot #2.) You
have more inbounds “green” to hit, even if you’re a little long. Try it!


One clinic I attended was on doubles. An astute observation centered on
doubles partners and the 25 seconds allowed before the next point:
• Beginners. They simply turned and went back to their next
designated spot.
• Club players. They would turn, acknowledge a good shot, high five,
and comment briefly.
• Pros (with no advanced “coaching”). It was noted that pros between
points would almost always turn to the center and talk strategy with
their partner, up the center line, back to the server or receiver’s


• The most important thing to remember in tennis is to “look at the
ball”: point of contact concentration. (There comes a time when in
order to win you must forget about how you’re hitting and
concentrate on where you’re hitting. Don’t work on strokes when
playing an important match. Concentrate on point of contact and
where to hit. You have to assume your strokes are right. “You can’t hit
well when thinking about how to hit.”
• Correct one error at a time. Don’t ball up your mind trying to do too
many things at once.
• Move in as far as you can on volleys. If you can get on top of the net,
be there. Don’t hit it up if you can take one quick step in and hit
it down.
• Volley low balls deep. Angle high volleys.
• When playing at the net and on the right-hand side use a continental
grip. Many good players volley on both sides with a continental grip.
• Use your left hand to adjust your grip from forehand to backhand. It
is good insurance.
• Don’t cut your shots too fine. Or, don’t try to hit within six inches of
the line when a ball inside three feet will do. Don’t make it any harder
than you have to. Many players do all the work to get the set-up shot
and then blow the shot by trying to hit a great shot. Finish the point.
Put the cap on it. “Good players don’t miss easy shots.” Short over
heads are the most common spot for this error.
• You can work on your weaknesses by forcing yourself to execute
them in play or practice situations. For example, if your second
serve is weak, play your practice matches with one serve only. Or, if
your patience and consistency is hurting, force yourself to practice
without coming to the net. For backhand problems, avoid running
around it in practice. Force yourself to execute your weakness.
• If a player is a weak volleyer yet strong baseliner, you can often draw
him in by hitting short balls. His backhand approach probably will be
weak. Hit a short ball to his backhand. His weak backhand approach
might give you an easy pass.
• Decide to play offensively or defensively. Many college players can
be beaten simply by keeping it back in, or “skyballing” them to death.
Develop a game suited to your ability. Don’t try to do things you
can’t do percentage-wise. Then add new wrinkles when you’ve
mastered your play.

• You can open the way to a weakness by hitting to a strength. For
example, a player with a weak backhand will often run around it. If
he overplays the forehand hit it sharply to his forehand for a
placement, or perhaps to move him wide to the forehand, thus
forcing him to hit a backhand on the second return.
• Often a player’s apparent strength is actually a weakness. For
example, many players have a weak looking but steady, deep
backhand; and, while their forehand is well paced and looks good, it
is actually a poor percentage shot because the player tries to do too
much with it.
• One strategy that works well, particularly against slow, lazy
opponents, is the “drop-shot and lob” strategy. Drop-shot them and
when they lope up to the net simply lob over their heads. Do over
and over again.
• “Never change a winning play—always change a losing plan.”
• Pressure pays off. Some players can’t stand it. It takes a lot of ability to
apply constant pressure, but it pays big dividends. Take the ball on
the rise to apply pressure. Move in and take the court away from him.
• Some players employ the “center theory” against certain players. If
you approach down the center you eliminate the passing angle.
This often works against weak but accurate angle hitters. Some slow
court players hit well on the run but can’t get anything on a ball hit
straight at them. Players with a great return of serve should often
be served at “down the center.”
• One of the most difficult shots to get any pace on is a high- or
medium-lofted backhand that is deep. Matches have been won in
this one strategy. The best place to return a high backhand is to a
high backhand. Some big hitters are completely frustrated by this
simple shot.
• Low chips with angle often frustrate net rushers. If you can chip it
low, they often have to volley up, and it opens them for an easy pass.
• High spin serves at the backhand are often effective (Roswell vs.
Roche, U.S. Open 1970).
• Welby Van Horn: “Balance is the clue to tennis.”
• It might be good to approach on your short forehands only. If your
backhand approach is weak, cross court it to eliminate angled shots
as you back up.
• Cross courts get you out of trouble.